The Hatewatch blog is managed by the staff of the Intelligence Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, an Alabama-based civil rights organization.
A faction of what remains of the Aryan Nations is planning a triple cross burning later this month in Mississippi to raise money for a former Aryan Nations member who joined the white nationalist paramilitary group The Order.
The event, dubbed “Christmas with the Klan” and scheduled at an undisclosed location near Holly Springs, Miss., is being organized by Shaun Patrick Winkler, who calls himself an “Imperial Wizard” with the Aryan Nations Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
Winkler, a protégé of Aryan Nations founder Richard G. Butler, lists a post office address in Potts Camp, Miss., not far from where “all pro-white groups” are invited for the event the weekend of Dec. 27.
And what’s in store for such a perverse gala? Winkler promises “free gifts for all children,” and “no alcohol, drugs or drama allowed.” All proceeds are slated to the Gary Yarbrough Legal Fund.
Yarbrough was a member of The Order, a white nationalist revolutionary organization founded by Robert J. Mathews in late September 1983. The group was set on fomenting a race war and a revolution against the U.S. government, which it believed to be controlled by a secret Jewish cabal.
The legal fund is raising money to the challenge the U.S. Bureau of Prisons for rescinding Yarbrough’s parole after he allegedly posted to various racist online forums, including Stormfront.
Other members of The Order who are still in prison are: Randolph George “Randy” Duey, 63, scheduled to be released in 2047; Richard J. Scutari, 67, scheduled for release in 2025; and David C. Tate, 52, who is serving a life sentence without parole
Earlier this week, the home addresses and telephone numbers of two reporters for The New York Times and a CNN correspondent appeared across a spectrum a racist websites—an apparent response to the Times publishing the personal information of Darren Wilson, the police officer who fatally shot Michael Brown.
Known as “doxing,” Michael Carothers, the username for Michael Weaver, who has been affiliated with several neo-Nazi groups and a long criminal history, posted the journalists’ personal information on Stormfront, the Internet’s largest racist message board. But very soon afterward, the information appeared elsewhere, on Occidental Dissent, in a piece written by a contributor pseudonymously known as “Jack Ryan.”
“A new low in anti-White gutter journalism was reached this week,” Ryan wrote. “The New York Times published the home address of Officer Darren Wilson with the clear intent of aiding and abetting black lynch mobs to make good on their threat to attack and possibly murder Wilson and his new wife.”
In truth, the Times did not include the home address of Wilson, only the neighborhood and street name of Wilson’s home—information that was widely circulated in other media outlets including Yahoo News, USA Today, The Washington Post and others.
Still, “Jack Ryan” went ahead and “doxed” the three journalists who publish using genuine bylines, while hiding behind the name he has used for years to publish racist commentary across a wide swath of the white supremacist web.
“Of course it would be wrong to threaten or harrass [sic] these folks,” Ryan wrote. “[B]ut there’s nothing that says you can’t drop them a card or phone them to wish them happy holidays, or simply to let their neighbors and local law enforcement know how displeased you are with their unprofessional actions.”
It was a tongue-in-cheek disclaimer, surely. As far as racist web portals go, Stormfront remains among the worst. As the Southern Poverty Law Center noted in a special report earlier this year, Stormfront users have been disproportionately responsible for some of the most lethal hate crimes and mass killings since the site was put up in 1995. In the past five years alone, Stormfront members have murdered close to 100 people. It’s not the kind of place one wants personal information posted.
So who is this Jack Ryan?
A Hatewatch investigation under way at the time of the doxing—including examining his extensive posting history on white nationalist sites like VDARE, American Renaissance, Alternative Right, and Occidental Dissent—found that “Jack Ryan” is actually John V. Ellis of Hyde Park, Chicago. An active supporter of the League of the South (LOS), a neo-Confederate hate group, Ellis first came to our attention after appearing at a demonstration in Murfreesboro, Tenn., last year. His vicious comments online almost immediately caught the attention of Hatewatch.
“Blacks are fairly predictable once you get to know the breed. Here are some tips: Never show fear, indecision. Blacks can smell this, same as dogs,” Ellis wrote on the American Renaissance website. “Always have some weapon that isn’t a gun. I highly recommend canemaster [sic] canes, $12 Target T Ball bat—carry in a gym bag along with ball and glove.”
In another article from Alternative Right, Ellis made some ugly statements about Muslims. “These Arab Muslim mobs are savage, barbarians. … I have a beautiful 23 year old White Daughter, I don’t want any of these filthy, urine colored Arab Muslim savages anywhere near my daughter.”
Ellis, who could not be reached for comment, claims to have have attended Vanderbilt University before completing an MBA at New York University’s Stern School of Business. Interestingly, however, he says he works for a painting company in Chicago. He also claims to have frequented many white nationalist conferences, including the 2013 American Renaissance national conference and most recently the VDARE Christmas party in New York City .
Most recently, Ellis says he attended the VDARE Christmas party in New York City where he and featured guest Ann Coulter apparently didn’t get along. “Mean, disrespectful, didn’t recognize Occidental Dissent,” wrote Ellis after the event. “I was very, very close to stripping off her clothes and spanking her bare ass right there.” (Hatewatch could not confirm Ellis’, nor Coulter’s attendance. A telephone message left with Coulters’ publicist today was not returned, and Peter Brimelow, who runs VDARE, would not comment. )
Although Coulter didn’t recognize Ellis and the bigotry he spews at Occidental Dissent, hopefully others will now. He’s been long due for a real byline.
In early November, around a hundred leaders and supporters of one of the largest Ku Klux Klan groups in the United States held a secretive “summit” in what is called “all White east Tennessee.” The white supremacists ranted about minorities and Jewish conspiracies and raised more than $10,000 in donations and “registration fees” from the event. But they didn’t have to meet in the woods. The Klan gathering was held at a comfortable, taxpayer-funded Tennessee state park resort facility with an armed park ranger on duty to provide security.
After a catered dinner of “organic vegetables and grass-fed beef” the lights were dimmed, as attendees followed the Power Point slideshow and listened to the keynote address, titled “Death to America.”
It seems unlikely that Islamic Jihad or ISIS supporters would have been permitted to hold a “summit” meeting on Tennessee state property to discuss strategy or raise thousands of dollars, though their Power Point would have probably been similar.
Advertised for months on the racist Website, Stormfront, it remains unclear if anyone in Tennessee state government knew about the nature of the event, although it should have been obvious to Norris Dam State Park officials that this was no ordinary “family reunion.” ( continue to full post… )
The reaction on the radical right to the frustration and flames of Ferguson following the announcement last night that Officer Darren Wilson would not be indicted in the Aug. 9 slaying of unarmed black teenager Michael Brown was as predictable, petty and racially charged as you’d expect.
On the white nationalist web forums Vanguard News Network (VNN) and Stormfront (SF) African-American protesters were called “apes” and “niggers,” who should have never been “allowed [out] of the Cotton fields of the south.”
But it was the sight of white protesters on the streets of Ferguson, New York and other cities across the country that seemed to inflame the VNN and SF commentators almost as much.
“Many of the protesters involved are white college students from surrounding areas,” “Hurin Thalion,” wrote on Stormfront today, just hours after Ferguson erupted into violence, looting and arson. “A bunch of anarchist Marxists. To me they are worse than any thug or gang banger.”
It was the multiracial protest on the streets of New York City that riled up “Peace Through Stormfront.”
“Granted lots of stupid whites there, but I also see a lot of jewfros, beaky noses and slope-backed ‘white’ foreheads.
“It isn’t called Jew York City for nothing.”
Over on VNN, “Patrick Bateman” wrote that the photographs of the protesters from across the country were “the usual mix of human garbage i.e.: non-whites, faggots, jews, marxists.”
But Stormfront commentator “TSFH14” had an existential question for his racist kin.
“If you were surrounded and you had one bullet left, would you save it for a Negro thug or white ARA [Anti-Racist Action]?”
Even though the protests in Ferguson and elsewhere were multiracial, there was also plenty of almost giddy talk on the extremist web forums of preparing for race war and white genocide prevention.
“I’m glad there aren’t many niggers where I live (but quite a few spics),” “Ray Allan” wrote on VNN. “I hope all the White folks in Ferguson, St. Louis and elsewhere are locked and loaded if the apes start straying into White areas.”
On Stormfront, “Sons of Vengeance” sounded a similar theme. “I’m thinking white areas need to burn in order for the sleeping and scared whites to finally stand their ground.
“It will take massive amounts of whites,” “Vengeance” continued, “to stand up to our genocide.”
“UnmarkedGrave” seemed to be happy about the violent reaction Monday night in the streets of Ferguson.
“America is anti-white and its destruction is inevitable. The sooner it burns the better it will be for our people.”
Of course, no right-wing prejudice parade would be complete without hearing from Ted Nugent, the crusty rock musician and National Rifle Association board member with a history of making racially charged remarks at the drop of his cowboy hat. Media Matters reports that Nugent reacted to the decision not to indict the police officer by attacking “black klansmen” and claiming “millions” of African Americans “slaughter” each other “every day.”
Media Matters said that in a post on Facebook Nugent says the lessons of Ferguson are “Don’t preach your racist bullshit ‘no justice no peace’ as blabbered by Obama’s racist Czar Al Not So Sharpton & their black klansmen.”
“And don’t claim that ‘black lives matter,’” he adds, “when you ignore the millions you abort & slaughter each & every day by other blacks.”
“…So quit killin each other you fuckin idiots,” he concludes his latest rant. “Drive safely.”
A collection of citizens in the small resort town of Whitefish, Mont., banded together earlier this week to demand that their local town council take action to deal with the effects of the presence of a nationally prominent white-nationalist organization in their midst.
Calling themselves Love Lives Here, the group packed the Whitefish City Council chambers on Monday night to demand the council pass an anti-hate ordinance that would bar such groups from assembling in the city.
The object of their ire was Richard Spencer and his National Policy Institute, a hate group that is one of the leading exemplars of academic racism. Spencer moved his national headquarters to Whitefish from Washington, D.C., several years ago. ( continue to full post… )
Over the past couple of weeks, the so-called “academic” racists of the white nationalist movement have set academics aside and instead devolved into an online battle in the style of the Hatfields and McCoys.
In the wake of several recent events, including the arrest and deportation of Richard Spencer from Hungary and the state senatorial campaign of Kentucky neo-Nazi Robert Ransdell, some of the biggest names in white nationalist circles are taking sides and taking turns publicly skewering each other on their respective websites.
White nationalist and neo-Confederate Brad Griffin (aka Hunter Wallace) compiled a list of “beefs” among white nationalists and posted them recently to his Occidental Dissent site. One commenter noted, “The easier list to compile would have been who isn’t fighting whom.” And indeed, from the length of the list Griffin posted, the commenter may be right.
The long list includes familiar and ongoing feuds, such as those between longtime white supremacist Harold Covington, and well, everyone, as well as those involving Vanguard News Network (VNN) site founder Alex Linder (also with pretty much everyone). However, there are many new and unexpected conflicts within the movement that, ironically, calls for the need for solidarity in its mission.
In particular, unexpected spats have surfaced between several well-known white nationalists including Greg Johnson of Counter-Currents and Richard Spencer of the National Policy Institute (NPI). Both are hailed as “academics” by their peers.
Andrew Anglin of the increasingly popular neo-Nazi site Daily Stormer, meanwhile, has been engaged in a war of words with Colin Liddell of the white nationalist Alternative Right, a site that was originally founded by Richard Spencer. The site was abruptly shut down by Spencer in 2013 until Liddell, who is based in the UK, took its reins.
The Johnson-Spencer conflict emerged in the wake of the near-collapse of NPI’s conference in Budapest. Johnson cancelled his plans to attend and requested a refund of registration fees from NPI when the Hungarian government threatened arrests and deportations for attendees.
Despite the fact that several of the event’s most noteworthy names, among them representatives from Jobbik, the hard-right, Hungarian nationalist party, and Aleksandr Dugin, a pro-Russian favorite of traditionalists and the European new right, had withdrawn, Spencer and others journeyed into Hungary to be met by police at the event. Spencer was rewarded with several nights in prison before being deported and banned from returning for several years.
None of this sat well with Johnson. “The final straw for me,” he commented at Occidental Dissent, “was Richard’s disastrous mishandling of the Budapest conference. When a foreign government tells you that your conference is banned and that the police will take the necessary steps to make sure it does not take place, you do not vow defiance.” He got personal in another comment when he said, “Richard is basically being dominated by Nina Nogoodnik, his Russian-Georgian wife.”
Johnson also penned a post and multiple comments at his own website, Counter-Currents, and attacked Spencer for his handling of the controversy – particularly his failure to adequately warn attendees of the risks involved with entering Hungary.
Another feud erupted about the same time over Robert Ransdell’s campaign for state Senate in Kentucky. Ransdell, a neo-Nazi, has been posting signs that state, “With Jews, We Lose.” White nationalist “comedian” RamZPaul took exception to Ransdell and openly condemned his campaign.
RamZPaul (Paul Ramsey) has other supporters in his opposition to Ransdell. One writer at white nationalist Robert Whitaker’s BUGS site snarked that Ransdell’s “borderline comatose ‘With Juice you lose’ is the latest drooling from COMIC Book Pro-Whites.”
In the same article, Whitaker attacked Stormfront, the world’s largest online white supremacist forum, calling it a vacuum for pro-white energy that is spent arguing on the internet, and said that he and his followers (known as “BUGSERS” who bombard various websites with variations of “the mantra,” a white supremacist statement that claims “anti-racism is anti-white”) are the only ones who work for the cause and have “VISIBLY destroyed anti-white memes that would be there forever if it had been left to tens of thousands of Stormfronters.”
And then neo-Nazi Andrew Anglin entered the fray of “beefs” with a massive round-up post at his Daily Stormer site, titled “Infinite DramaQuest” in which he adds extra snark by representing each feuding party as a different anime character from the series Dragon Ball Z.
To Anglin, all the battling about what’s best for the movement is ridiculous, because his approach is the best: “You cannot preserve the White race without addressing the Jews. You cannot address the Jews without addressing their hoax. You cannot address their hoax without addressing Adolf Hitler.” That statement opened yet another “beef” with Colin Liddell at Alternative Right.
“What Anglin is unequivocally saying here,” writes Lidell, “is that before you can do anything at all about preserving and protecting the White race – stopping mass immigration, say, or encouraging White women to have at least 2.1 babies – you must first get everyone to love Hitler and hate the Jews, and if you can’t accomplish these supposed preconditions then you had best forget the whole shebang, So what he is really saying is simply: ‘You cannot preserve the White race.’”
Like a tennis match, Anglin hit back, calling Lidell “Mr. Supersmartintellectualguy,” and claiming that he could turn Lidell’s arguments around on him, but “wouldn’t ever do that, because [he has] this thing in [his] back called a ‘vertebral column’ which physically prevents me from being capable of engaging in such base intellectual dishonesty.”
And not one to avoid controversy (or attention), white nationalist Matt Parrott of the Traditionalist Youth Network was willing to throw some more gas on the fire. According to Parrott, who normally shies away from comparisons to Nazism, “The flaw in Anglin’s model is that Nazism isn’t radical enough.”
Meanwhile, over in the vortex that is VNN Forum, Alex Linder is so worked up that he’s posting 1,000-word screeds at a rate that is almost unprecedented for him, even though he’s known for long diatribes. Among these are attacks on almost every major figure, including Johnson and Spencer, involved in a “beef” listed on Occidental Dissent.
“Everybody fails Greggy,” writes Linder in the #1 Infighting, Beefs, Etc. Thread” on VNN Forum. “Then piously he lifts his eyes heavenward, shakes his head nobly and sadly, and earnestly swears to soldier on and do better next time. So sodo-jesusy.”
“Spencer is simply a nebbish. I think of him as a Strom lite. Less brains, less character, even.”
Like some kind of surreal white supremacist version of a telenovela, the drama continues to unfurl. As Brad Griffin suggested at Occidental Dissent, some popcorn might be in order.
The Traditionalist Youth Network (TYN), a white nationalist group that works to promote “white identity,” filed another amicus brief two weeks ago. This time, they’ve filed in a Maryland lawsuit in which several gun advocates and a sporting goods store are battling a 2013 state law that bans the possession or sale of assault weapons. The case is currently on appeal.
Matt Parrott of TYN wrote that the “brilliant and dedicated legal team” of the organization filed the brief in the Fourth Circuit court to support the Second Amendment because, without that, we’re all apparently lost as a result of “this government’s ongoing campaign to reduce us to disarmed, brainwashed, and godless homo economicus drones.”
This isn’t the first time the Traditionalist Youth Network has filed an amicus brief in a lawsuit. Earlier this year, the group filed one in a federal case in Michigan that dealt with marriage equality. In that brief, TYN wanted to defend the “sanctity of marriage” from “culture distorters.”
In the four-page Maryland brief, TYN claims it has “become one of the fiercest defenders of traditional values in the United States of America” and that it is “an extremely active pro-European socio-political identity movement that was founded and is controlled by well-informed young activists.” The group strongly opposes, the brief says, “any attempt by governmental actors to infringe upon the traditional right of our people to keep and bear arms.”
Toward the conclusion, the brief veers off into a rant about “Culture Distorters” who are “stretching the Constitution to invent rights that don’t exist,” like the right to have an abortion, to engage in sodomy, or view pornography. Therefore, TYN is submitting this brief because “shots are being fired in America’s Culture War and the organization has the enemy of freedom—the Culture Distorter—in its sights and wishes to shoot down unconstitutional legislation that disarms our people.”
The brief lists attorneys Kyle Bristow as lead counsel and Jason Van Dyke as co-counsel. Bristow was the attorney who filed the first TYN amicus brief in March. He has a law practice in Michigan, and rose to notoriety as a student at Michigan State University, where he led a chapter of Young Americans for Freedom. While in that role, Bristow invited prominent white nationalists to speak at the campus, and spearheaded anti-immigrant and anti-LGBT campaigns that were so virulent that the SPLC took the unusual step of naming the chapter a hate group. While in law school, Bristow published his novel White Apocalypse, which plays out white supremacist revenge fantasies against Jewish professors, Latino and American Indian activists and staffers of a group modeled on the SPLC.
In a strange twist, Bristow has also taken cases in so-called “revenge porn,” claiming that it’s a product of liberalism and that the majority of the victims—whose nude photos are posted online by vindictive exes—are white blonde women.
Van Dyke is a neo-Confederate lawyer and long-time associate of Bristow, whose website bills his firm as “the meanest lawyers in Texas” (Van Dyke is the only attorney listed at the firm). He once attended Michigan State but transferred to the University of Dallas. While still at Michigan State in 2000, he was charged with domestic assault, possession of a banned weapon, and firearm safety violations. The case was dismissed and in 2007, Van Dyke attempted to have the records sealed, but a judge ruled otherwise in 2008.
Like Bristow, Van Dyke has taken on revenge porn sites, but in July, he sued the Tor Project, which is encryption software, alleging a “conspiracy” between Tor and Pinkmeth, a revenge porn site. The lawsuit drew ridicule to Van Dyke, who didn’t appear to understand what Tor is, and then it drew the attention of 4chan and Anonymous. Van Dyke eventually dropped the lawsuit against Tor, but not before he engaged in Twitter wars with Pinkmeth in which he issued thinly veiled threats (screenshots here).
On October 6, attorneys for the appellants in the Maryland lawsuit filed a response and motion to TYN’s brief, requesting that it be opposed and that the court deny TYN’s motion. “TYN,” the response argues, “appears to be using its brief to advocate positions that are far beyond the scope of this appeal,” and “TYN’s proposed brief adds nothing relevant for the Court’s consideration.”
Seems about right.
Update: Richard Spencer was released from detention and left Hungary October 7, according to the site Politics.hu. He is banned from entering all twenty-six Schengen states for three years. Those are European countries that have abolished passport and other controls at their common borders.
In the end, it was the little conference that could.
Last week, a key conference scheduled in Budapest by the U.S.-based white nationalist think tank National Policy Institute (NPI) hit several snags. Officials at the planned venue for the conference, the Larus Center, cancelled reservations and the Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orban announced that the government would use “all legal means” to prevent the gathering. Nevertheless, NPI managed to congregate informally in Budapest, and even have a couple of speeches even though Hungarian police broke up a gathering the evening of October 3rd at a restaurant and arrested NPI director Richard Spencer.
The British National Party (BNP) announced yesterday that it expelled its former leader, Nick Griffin, who was once convicted of Holocaust denial. Griffin had been in charge of the white’s only BNP for 15 years until he was removed from his post last July.
The BNP accused Griffin, whose most recent position was honorary president, of harassing party members, attempting to destabilize the party and “causing disunity by deliberating fabricating a state of crisis.” The BNP’s conduct committee published a detailed list of complaints about Griffin’s behavior including “disobeying legitimate, constitutional instructions,” “publishing, causing to be published or being reckless as to the publication of untrue allegations against the Party,” and in one case “making physical threats” against a party member.
Griffin’s woes had been growing since he lost his seat in the European Parliament earlier this year and declared personal bankruptcy “due to a series of legal bills he ran up over several years as a result of both pursuing and defending a series of long-running cases,” according to the BNP.
Griffin has a long history of political activism in the United States. In the early 2000s, he frequently came to our shores to attend meetings of the American Friends of the British National Party (AFBNP), a group in the Washington, D.C. area that raised funds for the BNP. Its leader, Briton Mark Cotterill, was deported in 2002 after the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (now known as the U.S. Immigration and Citizenship Services ) began investigating him. Their investigation was prompted by a Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) exposé that reported that Cotterill had raised some $85,000 for the BNP in contravention of U.S. law.
Griffin returned many times after Cotterrill’s deportation to speak at events put on by racist American groups. He spoke in 2008 to the Michigan State University chapter of Young Americans for Freedom, which was listed as a hate group by the SPLC. The year before, Griffin went on an extended college speaking tour that was partly supported by YAF and advertised by other hate groups, including the Council of Conservative Citizens. Griffin has close ties to American extremists including former Klansman David Duke and former members of the neo-Nazi National Alliance.
Editor’s Note: This weekend, Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban announced that his government would “use all legal means” to prevent the Budapest white nationalist gathering explored below from occurring, presumably by banning foreign visitors from entering the country. According to the Hungarian blog HungarianAmbience.com, officials at the planned venue for the conference also have cancelled their contract with conference organizers, saying they were not aware of the nature of the gathering. Still, chief organizer Richard Spencer is reassuring those planning to attend that the conference will go on as scheduled, even if meeting will be a “little more inconvenient” than it would have been.
One of the most polished American racists of recent years is Richard Bertrand Spencer, a 36-year-old Ph.D. program dropout who, in his khakis and oxfords, looks more like some ambitious young Capitol Hill staffer than a white supremacist. Indeed, with a master’s degree from the University of Chicago and a bachelor’s from the University of Virginia, Spencer’s resumé reads a lot like that of a well-heeled, up-and-coming politico.
But several years ago, when he was in his early thirties, Spencer left mainstream conservatism for what he calls “a life of thought crime.” Since then, he has established racist websites and ascended to the top spot at the National Policy Institute (NPI), a white nationalist nonprofit he runs from his home in Whitefish, Mont., along with two affiliated publishing outfits. After holding a series of highbrow-racist conferences on such topics as the future of white people, Spencer has now set his sights on bigger things — building bridges to the organized European racist right.
Though past NPI conferences have featured leading European racists, Spencer is moving beyond one-off presentations from these folks in order to connect with two newly important radical-right strains on the continent: the Movement Identitaire, a pro-white, anti-Muslim and anti-globalist movement that started in France in the early 2000s and has been growing rapidly since, and Jobbik, the anti-Semitic and racist organization that became Hungary’s third-largest political party this spring, when it polled more than 1 million votes.
“We hope that our budding society will act as a forum for a number of different traditionalist groups in Europe, including Identitarians,” Spencer told Hatewatch. “We are eager to involve Europeans who seek to connect with community and tradition, and thus preserve true diversity against the flattening of globalism.” His interest, Spencer added, is to reach “any European who seeks to develop racial identity and consciousness.”
A key upcoming moment in this effort comes at a planned Oct. 3-5 conference NPI organized in Budapest, Hungary. Co-hosted by Jobbik, the Inaugural Identitarian Congress is slated to feature prominent European nationalists of various types and several leading American racist ideologues (see biographies below).
Little is known about Spencer’s new allies in the U.S., but across the Atlantic they are seen as serious threats to European democracy. Members of the European Union, the European Jewish Congress and other prominent human rights defenders have warned of the dangers posed by Jobbik, which has been widely described as fascist, is patently anti-Semitic, and yet has grown rapidly. Similarly, the Movement Identitaire, which started small but made a name for itself with the 2012 invasion of a French mosque, is deeply worrying to European officials. ( continue to full post… )